on the subject of the watch in somewhere in time I have a theory to explain why after his accidental return to 1972 he could not return to the 1912 because the watch was already there!
this would have caused a fracture in the events previously shown that would negate the whole premise of the story! my question is in a bootstrap paradox are only the central events stuck in this time loop or is it a causual event that would prevent the changing of any other event between these times! if this is a contained loop then theoretically you could go back and kill hitler! but if it is a causual event then you couldn’t. what does anyone else think!
It should also be underscored that the deontic appearance of ordinary epistemic discourse seems to have a distinctively categorical flavor; that is, the phenomenology of our everyday talk and thought about duties, obligations, oughts, seems to imply the existence of categorical duties and obligations such as duties that are in some sense unconditional, that is independent of our psychology (desires, dispositions, beliefs,) and constrain what we ought to believe insofar as we are rational. For example, if a speaker utters, “You should believe that p” in an ordinary conversational context her statement would, typically, conversationally implicate that it is an (epistemic) fact of sorts that “You should believe that p.” A fortiori, the conversational implication is that anyone epistemically rational would be obliged to believe that p because it constitutes a categorical epistemic obligation (derivative of a corresponding epistemic fact).
Finally, our tendency towards objectification may stem from the history of European philosophy and theology. The Christian tradition regards God as an author of divine laws, and some of the moral notions that modern secular philosophers use derive from a system of divine law, though they think there is no God to act as a divine lawgiver. However, Mackie acknowledges that this couldn’t be the whole story because quite a few would say that God commands us to do certain things because they are right, not conversely. Mackie concludes with the thought that there are many reasons why people objectify values, and that they have all had an effect on way we think and talk about morality.